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FYS: The Power of Passion and the Passion for Power (2020): Citation & Annotation

This guide is for students in Profe Ridley's FYS.

  MLA Style

  • MLA Formatting and Style (Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)
    Note: Purdue OWL is a great guide. However, the feature to "Cite your source automatically..." (citation machine) is an advertisement for an online service NOT recommended by our library.

What is citation?

A citation provides the reader with information about your sources, to help the reader find them. Citations usually include such elements as:

  • title
  • author
  • who published it
  • when was it published

Image used with permission from Hannon Library at Loyola Marymount University

Steps to an Annotated Bibliography

  • provide citation information for each of your sources
  • summarize the source
  • evaluate the source
  • explain how the source contributes to your research

Annotations are a way for you to organize your thoughts about your research; they are also a way for others to see the direction you are taking and enter into a conversation with you about the importance of your ideas!

Citation: 2 Types


As you write, you will create citations in the text of your paper, to let the reader know when you are using someone else's thoughts.

Some styles use footnotes, other styles use endnotes or parenthetical citations.


At the end of your paper, you'll provide a complete list of all of the sources you used to write it.

Include everything you used, whether you specifically quoted or cited it in the text of your paper or not.

Depending on the citation style you're using, this may be called "Bibliography," "Works Cited," or "References."

When To Cite

You should cite when:

  • You use or describe specific information you have taken from a source:
    (as Andrea del Verrocio's pupil Leonardo da Vinci studied in a collaborative environment, sometimes even working with Verrocio himself (Shneiderman, 112).)

  • You refer to a theory or idea from a source:
    (Shneiderman believes that collaborative learning increases positive outcomes(224).

  • You  include any image (picture, table, graph) from a source.

You don't need to cite when:

  • The information you use is common knowledge
    (There are two types of elephants, Asian and African).

  • The information you use can be easily found and verified by most people
    (Abraham Lincoln was 56 years old when he was assassinated) 

Still not sure? Check out this page on how to avoid plagiarism