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Dance Research, History & Criticism (2021)

A guide for students in dance, created by librarian Maryke Barber

Citation Tips

  • If you use "cite this" within a database, or if you use citation software like Zotero, you should still check your footnotes and bibliography for accuracy and completeness. 
  • There are many online guides to help you with examples for Chicago Style citation. For a quick answer, search for 
    Chicago style guide + item you're trying to format or cite
    as in Chicago Style Guide Long Quotations
  • The purpose of citation is to help the reader identify and locate the source you used. If you cannot find an exact matching citation example, use the closest you can find and adapt it, keeping this purpose in mind.
  • Links: a link alone is never enough for citation, because most online links are not permanent. To help your reader find the source you used, always use complete citation information.
  • Images: images do not need to be included in your bibliography, but you do need to include a caption with each image. See this section on how to caption images in Chicago style.


Zotero is online software to help you:undefined

  • save citation information from your sources
  • organize your research
  • create footnotes (or in-text citations) and bibliographies

Start using Zotero:

Troubleshooting tips:

When To Cite


  • You use or describe specific information you have taken from a source
    (Andrea del Verrocio's pupil Leonardo da Vinci studied in a collaborative environment, sometimes even working with Verrocio himself (Shneiderman, 112).)

  • You refer to a theory or idea from a source
    (Shneiderman believes that collaborative learning increases positive outcomes(224).

  • You  include any image (picture, table, graph) from a source.


  • The information you use is common knowledge
    (There are two main types of elephants, Asian and African).

  • The information you use is a fact that can be easily found in multiple sources and verified by most people
    (Abraham Lincoln was 56 years old when he was assassinated) 


  • Books, journals, magazines, newspapers, diaries, letters: anything printed.
  • Websites, blogs, online journals, emails, videos: anything online.
  • TV, plays, lectures (including your professors' lectures), speeches, songs.


  • When you're quoting something directly.
  • When you're paraphrasing, summarizing, or adapting text.
  • When you're using an interpretation or explanation that isn't your own idea.

If you are uncertain about whether to cite information or not, ask your professor.

How to Paraphrase

Paraphrasing means restating ideas you have read, but writing in your own words. 

Check out this page explaining paraphrasing with examples. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)

See more examples here(Las Positas College)

Paraphrasing correctly helps you to avoid plagiarism. Plagiarism is copying someone else 's words, without giving them credit for their ideas. Plagiarism is considered an Honor Code violation at Hollins University.

source: Walden University Writing Center

Recognizing and Avoiding Accidental ("Passive") Plagiarism

source: Walden University Writing Center

Annotated Bibliographies

Annotated bibliographies usually include these elements: 

  • Citation
  • Background of the author
  • Summary of the source (what's the main idea?)
  • Examples
  • Author's argument
  • Comparison to other sources
  • Audience (who is this written for?)
  • Strengths/weaknesses of the source

Note: not all assignments require all of these elements. Ask your professor whether there are any differences in what is required.

From the University of Toronto: how to write an annotated bibliography.

From Purdue OWL: information on annotated bibliographies.

These slides give an example of annotation: