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ART264: Modern Art (2021): Citation

A guide for students in Professor Genevieve Hendricks's class, created by Librarian Maryke Barber

   Turabian Style

Turabian Citation Style

Online Guides

Turabian Quick Guide (from Chicago Manual of Style Online)

Turabian Student Tips Sheets (from Chicago Manual of Style Online)

Note on "Citing - How to Cite...": this video demonstrates Turabian citation using endnotes. You may choose to cite your sources using endnotes, or footnotes. Endnotes in a research paper all appear together, on a separate page at the end of your paper. Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page. If you are not sure whether you should use endnotes, or footnotes, ask your professor which they suggest.

Whether you use endnotes or footnotes, you will still create a separate bibliography for all of your sources.


Guide Books in the Library

Look for citation guide books on the "Citation Help" shelves, next to the central stairs on the library's first floor; or ask at the Checkout Desk to borrow one of the copies that is "on reserve."

  MLA Style

  • MLA Formatting and Style (Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)
    Note: Purdue OWL is a great guide. However, the feature to "Cite your source automatically..." (citation machine) is an advertisement for an online service NOT recommended by our library.

When To Cite


  • You use or describe specific information you have taken from a source
    (Andrea del Verrocio's pupil Leonardo da Vinci studied in a collaborative environment, sometimes even working with Verrocio himself (Shneiderman, 112).)

  • You refer to a theory or idea from a source
    (Shneiderman believes that collaborative learning increases positive outcomes(224).

  • You  include any image (picture, table, graph) from a source.


  • The information you use is common knowledge
    (There are two main types of elephants, Asian and African).

  • The information you use can be easily found and verified by most people
    (Abraham Lincoln was 56 years old when he was assassinated) 


  • Books, journals, magazines, newspapers, diaries, letters: anything printed.
  • Websites, blogs, online journals, emails, videos: anything online.
  • TV, plays, lectures (including your professors' lectures), speeches, songs.


  • When you're quoting something directly.
  • When you're paraphrasing, summarizing, or adapting text.
  • When you're using an interpretation or explanation that isn't your own idea.

If you are uncertain about whether to cite information or not, ask your professor.

Cite it Or....(Fun Video)

Great video from the University of Bergen in Norway (bonus: subtitles!)