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FYS: Cellphone Cinematography (2021)

A guide for students in professor Amy Gerber-Stroh's class, created by Librarian Maryke Barber


A citation provides the reader with information about your sources, to help the reader find them. Citations usually include such elements as:

  • title
  • author
  • who published it
  • when was it published

Citation: 2 Parts


As you write, you will create citations in the text of your paper, to let the reader know when you are using someone else's ideas or words.

Chicago style use footnotes or endnotes (your choice); other styles such as APA use parenthetical citations.


At the end of your paper, you'll provide a complete list of all of the sources you used to write it.

Include everything you used, whether you specifically quoted or cited it in the text of your paper or not.

In Chicago style, this is called your "Bibliography."

When to Cite

You should cite when:

  • You use or describe specific information you have taken from a source:
    (as Andrea del Verrocio's pupil Leonardo da Vinci studied in a collaborative environment, sometimes even working with Verrocio himself (Shneiderman, 112).)

  • You refer to a theory or idea from a source:
    (Shneiderman believes that collaborative learning increases positive outcomes(224).

  • You  include any image (picture, table, graph) from a source.

You don't need to cite when:

  • The information you use is common knowledge
    (There are two types of elephants, Asian and African).

  • The information you use can be easily found and verified by most people
    (Abraham Lincoln was 56 years old when he was assassinated)