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FILM 272: American Cinema (2018)

A guide for the American Cinema Primary Source Assignment in Professor Annie Berke's class, created by Librarian Maryke Barber


A citation provides the reader with information about your sources, to help the reader find them. Citations usually include such elements as:

  • title
  • author
  • who published it
  • when was it published

Image used with permission from Hannon Library at Loyola Marymount University

When to Cite

You should cite when:

  • You use or describe specific information you have taken from a source:
    (as Andrea del Verrocio's pupil Leonardo da Vinci studied in a collaborative environment, sometimes even working with Verrocio himself (Shneiderman, 112).)

  • You refer to a theory or idea from a source:
    (Shneiderman believes that collaborative learning increases positive outcomes(224).

  • You  include any image (picture, table, graph) from a source.

You don't need to cite when:

  • The information you use is common knowledge
    (There are two types of elephants, Asian and African).

  • The information you use can be easily found and verified by most people
    (Abraham Lincoln was 56 years old when he was assassinated) 

Still not sure? Check out this page on how to avoid plagiarism